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Global Tax 50 2017: Paige Marvel

Paige Marvel
Paige Marvel was also in the Global Tax 50 2015

As the Chief Judge of the US Tax Court, Paige Marvel has made it into this year's Global Tax 50 for her leadership and the role of the court.

The US Tax Court has been decisive in two landmark cases in 2017, both of which involved the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) – against Amazon in one case, and Eaton Corporation in the other.

After almost 20 years at the US Tax Court, Marvel began a two-year term as chief judge in June 2016. Marvel was first appointed to the court by former President Bill Clinton in 1998 and, after serving a 15-year term, was nominated for a second term in 2013 by the Obama administration. The nomination was met with unanimous support from the US Senate Finance Committee, and Marvel was reappointed to a second 15-year term.

"Paige has demonstrated unwavering integrity and a firm commitment to public service throughout her career," President Obama said at the time. "I am proud to nominate her to serve for another term on the United States Tax Court."

During Marvel's term as chief judge, the Tax Court ruled in the favour of the taxpayer in the case of Amazon.com Inc. v Commissioner. In this case, the IRS claimed that Amazon undervalued the contribution of intangibles to the company's Luxembourg subsidiary by more than $3 billion when Amazon initiated a cost sharing arrangement (CSA) with the subsidiary.

As part of this CSA, Amazon transferred intangible assets, including software used to operate websites, as well as marketing and customer information, to the Luxembourg subsidiary. The US tax authorities argued that these assets should be valued as components of a business operation and took into account the projected cash flows for the company's European operations.

Ultimately the US Tax Court ruled in Amazon's favour against the IRS. Judge Albert Lauber rejected the arguments of the tax authorities and found that the IRS had abused its discretion and acted in an "arbitrary, capricious and unreasonable manner". If the IRS had won the case, Amazon would have faced a tax bill of $1.5 billion plus interest.

Similarly, in the case of Eaton Corporation and Subsidiaries v Commissioner, the US Tax Court ruled that the IRS had crossed the line when it cancelled two unilateral advanced pricing agreements (APAs) covering the transfer of intangible assets and cost sharing between Eaton's US subsidiaries and its operations in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

"What this case highlights is that APAs may not be reviewed under principles of contract law. The Tax Court will apply the abuse of discretion standard and focus on the 'self-imposed' guidelines in the relevant revenue procedures," Mike Patton and Mumi Hemrajani from DLA Piper said in an article published in International Tax Review.

"Notwithstanding what appears to be a higher burden of proof, the taxpayer was able to convince the court that it had not made misrepresentations of material facts or engaged in other conduct that justified the cancellations," Patton and Hemrajani said.

These rulings have laid down important benchmarks for future transfer pricing and tax disputes impacting multinationals, and have ensured that the IRS treats taxpayers fairly. The decisions taken by the Tax Court in these cases will likely shape future decisions.

The Global Tax 50 2017
View the full list and introduction
The top 10 • Ranked in order of influence
1. US Tax Reform Big 62. Dawn of the robots
3. The breakdown of global consensus4. The fifth estate
5. Margrethe Vestager6. Arun Jaitley
7. Sri Mulyani Indrawati8. Pascal Saint-Amans and Achim Pross
9. Richard Murphy10. Cristiano Ronaldo and Lionel Messi
The remaining 40 • In alphabetic order
Tomas BalcoPiet Battiau
Monica Bhatia Blockchain
Rasmus Corlin ChristensenSeamus Coffey
Jeremy CorbynRufino de la Rosa
Fabio De Masi The Estonian presidency of the Council of the European Union
Maria Teresa Fabregas Fernandez The fat tax
Maya ForstaterBabatunde Fowler
The GE/PwC outsourcing deal The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ)Meg Hillier
Chris JordanWang Jun
James KaranjaBruno Le Maire
John Pombe Joseph MagufuliCecilia Malmström
The Maltese presidency of the EU CouncilPaige Marvel
Theresa MayAngela Merkel
Narendra ModiPierre Moscovici
The European Parliament Committee of Inquiry into Money Laundering, Tax Avoidance and Tax Evasion (PANA) The Paris Agreement
Grace Perez-NavarroAlexandra Readhead
Heather Self TaxCOOP
Tax Justice NetworkDonald Trump
United Nations Committee of Experts on International Cooperation in Tax Matters WU Global Tax Policy Center

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